Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Methods

This paper includes three case studies, each of which examines a different organization in Major League Baseball.  Each organization was studied to determine how sustainable the practices and components of their individual stadium and corporation are and where improvements can be made.   

             

 CASE 1: The Washington Nationals.  The Nationals have been located in Washington D.C. since 2005 (the team was previously called the Montreal Expos and was located in Montreal, Canada).  The Nationals played their first three seasons (05-07) at Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium (RFK), a multi-purpose stadium located in Washington D.C. (now home to Major League Soccer’s D.C. United).  In 2008 the team moved to a new home located 4.6 miles west of their temporary stadium; Nationals Park was ready for Opening Day of the 2008 season.  This ballpark was built from the ground up, on a reclaimed brownfield site, to meet LEED Silver standards and was the first stadium in the United States to receive LEED certification (Vanderweil).





  CASE 2: The San Francisco Giants.  The Giants have called the city of San Francisco home since moving from New York in 1958.  Construction of their newer stadium, AT&T Park (formerly known as Pacific Bell and SBC Park), began in 1997 and was completed in time for Opening Day of the 2000 season.  Although not initially built with a green mentality, AT&T Park has undergone improvements that have earned it the LEED Silver Certification for Existing Buildings, Operations and Maintenance, the first MLB park to do so (Reichard).  Some reviews even go so far as to say that it is the greenest stadium in baseball.
                 


CASE 3: The Los Angeles Dodgers.  The Dodgers, like the Giants, moved from New York in 1958.  They played at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum for their first three seasons in Los Angeles, and then moved to Dodger Stadium after it was built in 1962.  The team still plays in its original 1962 stadium.  The Dodgers are currently participating in a $500 million dollar stadium improvement plan that aims for modernization of the park by 2012.  The plan includes various green initiatives and is acting under the slogan: “Think Blue, Act Green!” (Dodgers.com Press Release)

Various techniques were used to assess the situation of each team. These techniques include the use of multiple forms of satellite imagery, which will all be processed using ENVI, a software used to process and analyze geospatial imagery; research of public statements about the stadiums and their progress; and direct contact with stadium personnel. 
The first set of images is stable night light images.  A 2009 world image was acquired from the National Geophysical Data Center (NRDC).  “The files are cloud-free composites made using all the available archived DMSP-OLS smooth resolution data for calendar years. In cases where two satellites were collecting data – two composites were produced. The products are 30 arc second grids, spanning -180 to 180 degrees longitude and -65 to 75 degrees latitude” (NOAA).  The image was subset into three parts, each focusing an the individual case study areas.  The images are then used to assess general population of the area and where the stadium is located in terms of overall use of light, which in this case most likely represents electricity.  The subsets were individually opened in ENVI.  They were then made into 3D models where the higher points are where the light is at highest intensity.  The 2D images were overlaid with a density slice.  In each image, red represents the most intense light.  The density slice intervals were kept the same throughout each image in order to compare the amount of light.
The second set of images were created using the red and infrared bands of LandSat images acquired from the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF).  The images were processed to study the area’s greenness.  After opening each image using the red and infrared bands in the pattern 434, an NDVI image was then created for each case using ENVI’s processor.  This produced an image in grayscale where the whiter areas represent higher greenness.  Again, a 3D image was made for each case and the greener (whiter in color) areas are at the highest points.  The 2D images were also overlaid with a density slice of the red band.  The intervals were kept the same for each image in order to compare the “greenness” of the area.
The third set of images is high resolution orthoimages acquired from the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center.  These images were overlaid with a density slice of the blue band and limited (as close as possible) to green space.  The measurement tool was used to measure estimates of parking lot area, roof top area, and total green space (not including tree canopy). 
Each stadium was researched and contacted by phone to gain information about their facilities management, maintenance, green initiatives, etc..  Data was collected to include information about the following: waste production including recycling and compost, water use, energy consumption, transportation including the promotion of public transit, cleaning products, field cover, alternative energy use, building materials, green space, and off-season maintenance.
All the data collected was analyzed and compared to determine the success of sustainability efforts and potential for growth of each organization in regards to each other and over all.