Thursday, December 2, 2010

Discussion

      After reviewing the outcome of each technique, multiple conclusions can be drawn. In terms of green space, it is necessary to first notice that the density slices of the orthoimagery were disrupted by shadow. Images appear to have more green space than they actually do. Case 3, Los Angeles, has a surprising amount of green space, but it comes only in the form of planters and medians. Case 2, San Francisco, has a surprisingly low amount of green space (almost none), but its location within the city and next to the SF Bay provides a good explanation.
      When measuring greenness with NDVI, the greenest place for all stadiums is located at the middle of the field. The stadiums are generally surrounded by low measures of NDVI, with few pixels in the .3 - .5 and .5 - .7 range. The 3D images all show a significant depression around the center of the field. This is most evident in Case 3, LA Dodgers, and is also quite noticeable in Case 1, RFK Stadium.
      San Francisco has the largest measurement of parking lot area. Its large lot is located across a bridge so the stadium gives off the initial appearance of not having much parking available. Even without measurements, it is obvious that Dodger Stadium has a large amount of sprawling parking cut out of the surrounding green environment. Nationals Park also has large amounts of parking, but it is mostly in the form of 4-story parking structures, therefore taking up less space. All stadiums have far too much parking. People are generally more likely to take alternative modes of transportation if parking is difficult to find or too expensive. Although prices can reach up to $35 at Nationals Park, there are still reasonable prices located near the stadium. A decrease in the luxury of easily accessible parking would most likely cause an increase in alternative transportation use. Some sort of reward system could also be used.
      Roof space can be used for things like photovoltaic panels to create solar energy and green for green roofs. Depending on materials used, roofs are also a potential source for great heat absorption. AT&T Park has the smallest total roof area, but it is the only stadium reported having photovoltaic panels. Nationals Park has the highest measured roof area and reports using roof materials that have high reflectance, so their roof may not be a large source of heat absorbency, but it could be put to better use. Dodger Stadium, the only stadium of the study who has just begun its green efforts, has no innovative roof use as of now. They do however have plenty of area to make use of the roof space.
      All stadiums are located in red areas of the night light imagery; therefore the light that they give off is not disproportionate to the light pollution of the area. Location within a city is the best option for a stadium. In a city, green initiatives have the ability to influence a greater number area and also are able to connect with city efforts. Also, these locations provide best access to public transportation. The nightlight image in Case 3 is misleading in that it gives the illusion that Dodger Stadium is located in a similar place within its city as the other two cases. The orthoimage needs to be examined in order to see that Dodger Stadium is located out of the way of its city center. It is only serviced by one bus line and is a significant commute for most visitors no matter their form of transportation.
      It is hard to determine which team, the Case 1- Washington Nationals or the Case 2- San Francisco Giants, have had the most successful sustainability efforts. San Francisco has made great improvements without building a brand new stadium and they seem to not only be most proud of their accomplishments, but also provide the most fan education and outreach. Washington employs unique innovations like their treatment of water before it is added to the storm water runoff.
      Los Angeles can learn from both of these cases and also has the potential to do much more. Although limited by their location, relocation being both too wasteful and nearly impossible, the Los Angeles Dodgers should have the capability to implement many great sustainable tactics. A list of possibilities that have already been put in place in other stadiums is as follows:
• Solar thermal power
• Photovoltaic thermal power
• White roofs
• Green roofs
• Recycled rainwater
• Onsite wastewater treatment and resuse
• Carbon offset partnership with outside firms
• Renewable energy purchases to offset carbon emissions
• Increased use of public transportation
• Carpooling
• Recycling household and construction and demolition materials
• Using the fan market to divert waste like old bleachers from land fill
• Low VOC paints, adhesives, and sealants
• Use of rapidly renewable/Forest and Stewardship Council certified wood
• Green housekeeping
• Building automation system
• Low flow plumbing fixtures
• Automatic lighting and water delivery
• Energy efficient lighting
• Use of biodegradable and recyclable signage and advertisements
• Sale of environmentally friendly products
• Compostable and recyclable food vendor products
• Hand dryers in bathrooms
• Stripe curtains in refrigerators
• Efficient landscape watering and management systems

      This study was limited both by time and access. In continuing to improve upon the review of sustainability in Major League Baseball, better and more reliable contact needs to be made with each organization. Only two of the four stadiums in focus responded to interview attempts and the one available were not the most knowledgeable of the subject.
      The study could be improved by speaking with multiple people from each organization and, in an ideal case, setting up face to face meetings and stadium walkthroughs. This way I would be able to physically document each aspect of the stadiums green tactics, down to each trashcan and recycling bin.
      It would also be helpful to have more control over when the satellite images were taken. It would be ideal to have an image both from during the season and during the offseason. The in season imagery also should be from a game day and at game time. Although parking information could probably be obtained from the parking agency, it would be helpful to be able to visualize how much of each stadiums space is actually utilized.